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“Bhaktapur” Kingdom of Malla

“Bhaktapur” Kingdom of Malla

The Malla Rulers of the Independent Kingdom of Bhaktapur.

The Sanskrit word “Malla” literally means “wrestler.” In his work, ‘Medieval Nepal,’ D.R.Regmi writes, “The Mallas as a people find a presence in numerous ancient treatises with same heroic tradition.” Arideva‘s father is said to have been so impressed by his wrestling prowess that he bestowed the title of ‘Malla‘ on him, and with his reign in the Nepal valley during the twelfth century began a new dynasty.

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Bhupatindra Malla (1696-1722) 

When walking through Bhaktapur’s squares, one name that keeps popping up is Bhupatindra Malla. Bhaktapur‘s multitalented king is responsible for some of the city’s most unique architectural heritages. He is also remembered for his significant contributions to art and literature. His creations include the five-story pagoda(Nyatopola Temple), Pachpanna Jhyal Durbar (55 windowed palace), and his own statue, which are among the city’s most well-known and famous landmarks (in front of the Golden gate).The Pachhpanna Jyale Durbar(55 Windowed Palace)‘s frescoes and elaborate woodcarvings are awe-inspiring, and they are currently being restored. He is also a playwright who has written over a half-dozen literary works, including Maithili literature. His specific affinity for the performing arts is thought to have influenced the design of his palaces. He constructed dabalis (platforms where dramas, dances, and other forms of entertainment were presented) in the squares so that he could watch the beautiful performances from the comfort of his palace window. “Bhupatindra Malla’s works are a remarkable illustration of the interblend of knowledge, intellect, and religion,” says academic Perci Brown.The rivalry between the three monarchs of the valley is also thought to have resulted in a proliferation of architectural creations. On a massive stone pillar in each of the three Durbar Squares, there are statues of kings

The Mallas’ Demise

Yakshya Malla partitioned his realm into three kingdoms before his death: Kantipur (Kathmandu),Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur(Bhadgaun). As a result, rivalry and bitter feuds arose, which were sometimes resolved with the assistance of outsiders. The traditional adage, “United we stand, divided we fall,” was disregarded. King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the monarch of Gorkha, a kingdom to the north of Kathmandu, declared himself monarch of the entire valley from the Chandragiri hills overlooking the valley. He didn’t attack the valley for a long time. He is reported to have appeared at Kantipur’s gates as the residents were engrossed in the festivities of the Indra Jatra Festival. When Kumari(the Living Goddess ), who is paraded in a chariot procession during this festival, gifted him with a Tika, his army met no resistance and the city became his. Lalitpur (Patan) and then Bhaktapur came into his hands during the next few years, ending the Mallas‘ 400 year reign.

Shah King Prithibhi Narayan Shah on command
Name of the Malla Rulers Time Period (A.D)
Yaksha Malla 1428 – 1482
Ratna Malla1482 – 1504
Vir Malla1504 – 1505
Bhuban Malla1505 – 1519
Rana Malla1519 – 1522
Bhimsen/ Jita Malla1522 – 1524
Pran Malla/ Vira Malla1524 – 1548
Vishwa Malla1548 – 1561
Trailokya Malla/ Tribhuvan1561 – 1614
Jagat Jyoti Malla1614 – 1637
Naresh Malla1637 – 1644
Jagat Prakash Malla1644 – 1673
Jitamitra Malla/ Ugra Malla1673 – 1696
Bhupatindra Malla1696 – 1722
Ranjit Malla1722 – 1769